Here is a quick glossary of common and frequently used Japanese terms
that might not necessarily be translated in subbed anime
-san: Equivalent to Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss. The “-san” suffix at the end of names serves as a mark of respect.
-sama: The “-sama” suffix is used as a polite term of address to someone noticeably older or of higher status than yourself. It is sometimes translated into English as ‘Lord’ or ‘Lady’, but it is more like ‘sir’ or ‘ma’am’.
-kun: Generally for male children. Also could be used when addressing a male of lesser status.
-chan: An informal version of “san” used to address children and female family members. Children under about 10 years of age are “-chan”, -chan continues to be used as a term of endearment, especially for girls, into adulthood. “-chan” is also used with pets and animals.
-senpai: Used to address senior members in an academic environment or in sports clubs. It is sometimes seen in business environments.
-kohai: The reverse of senpai. Kohai is used to address juniors.
-sensei: Means teacher. It can be used as a title “-sensei”, or as a standalone title, Sensei. Also used for a doctor.
-dono: A title that literally means ‘Lord’ or ‘Lady,’ and also ‘milord’ and ‘milady’. It is obsolete; if you try to use it with modern Japanese they will think your brain has been addled by watching too many samurai movies.
Gochisosama-deshita: More informal/simple is Gochisōsama. Spoken upon finishing a meal, it literally means ‘Thank you for a good meal’
Itadakimasu: Said prior to eating it literally means ‘I humbly receive.’ The phrase is similar to “bon appétit”, or saying grace to give thanks before a meal.
Itekimasu: A statement said when leaving home, “I’m off!”
Iterashai: A statement said when someone is leaving home, wishing them off. Equivalent of ‘Have a good day!”
Okairinasai: Japanese equvalent of “welcome home,” said when greeting people coming back home.
Tadaima: Traditionally, an announcement made when indicating arrival back home; “I’m here!” or “I’m home!”